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Pharmacokinetics

Introduction Pharmacokinetic is the kinesis (movement) of pharmacological substances (drugs) throughout the body, which includes all phases and processes from entering to leaving the body. It is merely “what the body does with the drug.” Those drug kinetics can be broadly divided into 4 (ADME): If the drug is administered intravenously, there are only three […]

Ototoxic drugs

Ototoxic denotes toxic to the ears (oto-). Ototoxic drugs are concentrated in the labyrinthine fluid. When the plasma concentration falls, these are gradually eliminated from the labyrinthine fluid. Ototoxicity is worse when the drug’s plasma concentration is consistently high and above a threshold value. Reduced renal clearance can predispose ototoxicity of the drug. The most […]

Topical antifungal drugs

Topical antifungal drugs are applied externally on the body in the form of cream, ointment, gel, lotion, spray, shampoo or powder. These are used to treat fungal infections on skin, hair, nails, vagina and inside the mouth. The benefit of topical application is that it has minimal adverse effects on the body as well as […]

Antifungal drugs: classification, mechanism, uses and side effects

Antifungal drugs are used for superficial and deep/systemic fungal infections. Fungal infections are usually associated with the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, corticosteroids, anticancer or immunosuppressant drugs, indwelling catheters and implants, and emergence of AIDS. Saprophytic fungi can easily invade live tissue as a result of the aforesaid disruption of the host defence mechanisms. There are […]

Antibacterials: classification and mechanism

Antibacterials are antimicrobial agents particularly used to kill bacteria. These includes naturally occurring as well as synthetic and semisynthetic compounds. Antibiotics are chemicals produced by microorganisms that, at extremely low concentrations, kill or selectively limit the growth of other microorganisms without having a substantial negative impact on the host. Other naturally occurring compounds that inhibit […]

Antiemetics: classification, mechanism and uses/ etiology-based drug selection

Antiemetics are drugs used to prevent vomiting. Vomiting is a protective mechanism of GIT/stomach to expel out undesired or hazardous foods or chemicals. It is an innate protective reflex rather than a disease, while nausea is the sense of vomiting. Sometime undesirable vomiting can occur due to emotional stress, motion sickness, therapeutic drugs like anticancer, […]