Introduction Pharmacokinetic is the kinesis (movement) of pharmacological substances (drugs) throughout the body, which includes all phases and processes from entering to leaving the body. It is merely “what the body does with the drug.” Those drug kinetics can be broadly divided into 4 (ADME): If the drug is administered intravenously, there are only three […]
Antiemetics are drugs used to prevent vomiting. Vomiting is a protective mechanism of GIT/stomach to expel out undesired or hazardous foods or chemicals. It is an innate protective reflex rather than a disease, while nausea is the sense of vomiting. Sometime undesirable vomiting can occur due to emotional stress, motion sickness, therapeutic drugs like anticancer,
Prodrugs are described as inactive drugs that must be changed into one or more active metabolites within the body in order to exert the desired pharmacological effect. The prodrug may be more stable, have greater bioavailability, or other desired pharmacokinetic features, or have fewer side effects and toxicity than the active form. Some prodrugs are
Deflazacort is a synthetic glucocorticoid, with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties. It is a prodrug, converts to active metabolite by plasma esterases. It has approved by the FDA to manage Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). With less adverse effects on bone health and weight than other steroids, it improves the lives of children with DMD by delaying
Topical steroids are used to treat a wide range of dermatological illnesses. Their anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, vasoconstrictor, and antiproliferative (for scaling lesions) properties are major mechanism to use them topically. The extent of absorption to deeper layers determines the strength of action, and hence the lipophilicity of the molecule determines potency to a large extent. Fluorinated
Steroids are derived from the word sterol, which means ‘sterol-like.’ Cholesterol is the most abundant sterol produced by the body. Steroids, which comprise different hormones and vitamins, are endogenous or synthesized derivatives of sterol. Sterols are molecules that contain the ‘-OH’ functional group and are most likely lipids in origin. They serve various physiological functions
W.H.O. Definition of Drug “Any substance or product that is used or intended to be used to modify or explore physiological systems or pathological states for the benefit of the recipient.” Conventional definition of Drug Drug is a substance used for the prevention, diagnosis or treatment of a disease in human beings or animals. But,
Prostaglandins (PGs) are physiologically active products of the COX (cyclooxygenase) pathway, which are generated from phospholipids in cell membranes.
It is a field in which drug administration is synchronized with the biological rhythm in order to optimize the therapeutic effect while minimizing side effects. A collective knowledge of variation in disease intensity and exacerbation, impact of circadian rhythm on the efficacy and safety of medication constitutes the rationale for a novel pharmacological approach.
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is the measurement of drug and active metabolite concentrations in the plasma or serum to maximize therapeutic effect and minimize side effects. Although oral fluid (Saliva) drug concentration measurement is becoming popular in recent years and has been suggested as a non-invasive option, but it has a number of limitations. Individualizing