Prostaglandins: role in fever and pain

Prostaglandins are local hormone for various physiological activities such as fever, pain, inflammation and hemostasis. Prostaglandins (PGs) are physiologically active products of the COX (cyclooxygenase) pathway, which are synthesized from arachidonic acid. Phospholipids in the cell membranes are the main generator of arachidonic acid. It was given the name ‘Prostaglandin’ since it was first discovered in semen and was assumed to be originated from the prostate gland. Because of the 20 carbons in their chemical structure, they are designated as eicosanoids. The subscript 2 in the name of a PG denotes two double bonds, for example, PGE2 and PGI2. Plasma t½ of most PGs, TXA2, and prostacyclin ranges from a few seconds to a few minutes. PGs are Metabolize mainly in the kidney and excreted through urine.

Figure 1: synthesis of prostaglandins

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